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Aktuelle Projekte

Auf dieser Seite finden Sie ausgewählte aktuelle Projekte, die Mitarbeitende des Schweizerischen Erdbebendienstes (SED) federführend betreuen oder an denen sie in zentraler Rolle mitwirken. Es handelt sich nicht um eine abschliessende Aufstellung, sondern um eine Auswahl zentraler und umfangreicher Projekte. Die Projekte sind nach ihrem Hauptforschungsfeld geordnet.

Interdisziplinäre Projekte

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Despite intensive research, scientists cannot predict exactly when and where the next major earthquake will occur. The ERC Synergy project "FEAR" aims at a better understanding of the physics of earthquake processes. To this aims, researchers will generate small earthquakes under controlled conditions at a depth of more than one kilometre and on a scale of ten to one hundred metres. They will measure a variety of earthquake parameters using a dense sensor network and then analyse them. The consortium hopes to gain a better understanding of the dynamics of earthquakes. The new findings will also be used to advance experiments on the safe use of geo-energy and to improve the predictability of earthquakes. The experiments will take at the "Bedretto Lab", a rock laboratory in the Swiss Alps, built by ETH Zurich and the Werner Siemens Foundation. It offers FEAR a unique research environment.

Project Leader at SED

Prof. Stefan Wiemer

Involved Institutions

Seismology and Geodynamics group at ETH Zurich, RWTH Aachen University, Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia

Funding Source

European Research Council Synergy Grant

Duration

6 years

Key Words

earthquake prediction, earthquake dynamics, safe use of geo-energy

Research Field

earthquake prediction, earthquake dynamics,

Link To Project Website

http://fear-earthquake-research.org

The OPOSSUM project aims at the development and testing of accelerometers and acceleromter networks with the potential to outperform state of the art sensing technology. Accelerometers are powerful, highly versatile and cost-efficient tools used in a wide range of application with specific requirement in terms of frequency response and sensitivity. Accelerometers can record acceleration with frequencies of 1Hz to more than 1MHz. In seismology accelerometers are used in two subfields, among others:

  • Imaging for seismic velocities and their evolution with time, which are related to transients in material properties, fluid flow and stress evolution.
  • Monitoring of tiny fractures, cracks or micro earthquakes that are an indication of material fatigue or accelerating failure processes.

Accelerometers can be deployed on concrete or steel, for example for structural health monitoring of buildings, dams, bridges or wind turbines; they can be deployed in deep boreholes, detecting micro-earthquakes during the reservoir creation of geothermal activity, oil and gas exploration and operations, or to monitor mining operation and the integrity of nuclear waste repositories etc. They can also be used as scientific instruments to better understand fluid-rock interaction or the initiation and propagation of catastrophic natural and induced earthquakes.

The OPOSSUM project exploits theoretical and experimental advances in the field of opto-mechanics in the last decade as well as significant improvement on micro-fabrication and modelling of high-quality integrated photonics circuits (PIC) and ultra-high Q (UHQ) mechanical resonators. These two technological building blocks are at the core of a new generation ultra-sensitive accelerometers that are developed at the Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique (CSEM), with capabilities of exceeding the current generation of accelerometers in numerous ways.

Project Leader at SED

Linus Villiger

Funding Source

SNF Bridge

Duration

2021 - 2025

Key Words

Ultra-sensitive seismic sensors; Optomechanics; High Q mechanical resonators; Integrated photonics; energy and exploration; structural health monitoring; Induced earthquakes

Research Field

Seismic sensor development

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The aim of RISE is to develop tools and measures to reduce future human and economic losses. It is a three-year project financed by the Horizon 2020 programme of the European Commission. It starts in September 2019 and will end in August 2022. RISE is coordinated by ETH Zurich and brings together 19 organisations from across Europe and five international partners.

The key objective of RISE is to advance real-time earthquake risk reduction capabilities for a resilient Europe. With an improved scientific understanding and the use of emerging technologies human and economic losses shall be further reduced. New measures are needed to compliment present efforts in implementing building codes and retrofitting existing structures.

RISE adopts an integrative, holistic view of risk reduction targeting the different stages of risk management. RISE assesses risk dynamically, taking into account varying time scales, locations, and contexts. Improved technological capabilities are applied to combine and link all relevant information to enhance scientific understanding and inform societies.

Examples of the challenges RISE will address are

  • Advance real-time seismic risk reduction capacities in of European societies by transitioning to a new concept of dynamic risk.
  • Improve short-term forecasting and operational earthquake forecasting by developing and validating the next generation of forecasting models.
  • Enhance the quality of earthquake prediction and earthquake forecasting by launching a European collaborative effort for validation and rigorous testing.
  • Contribute to the establishment of sound and rational risk reduction procedures
  • Improve the preparedness of societies, emergency managers, and long-term recovery management.

RISE is multi-disciplinary, involving earth-scientists, engineering- scientists, computer scientists, and social scientists.

Project Leader at SED

Prof. Stefan Wiemer

SED Project Members

Prof. Dr. Stefan Wiemer, Dr. Banu Mena Cabrera, Michèle Marti, Dr. Carlo Cauzzi, Dr. Florian Haslinger, Philipp Kästli, Dr. Laura Gulia, Dr. Paul Selvadurai, Dr. Antonio Petruccelli, Dr. Maren Böse, Romano Meier, Irina Dallo, Leila Mizrahi

Funding Source

Horizon 2020

Duration

2019 - 2023

Key Words

risk reduction, earthquake forecasting, seismology, civil engineering, geohazards, seismic risk, big data

Research Field

earthquake modelling, operational earthquake forecasting, early warning, rapid loss assessment, structural health monitoring, recovery and rebuilding efforts, long-term earthquake forecasting

Link To Project Website

www.rise-eu.org

Publications

Böse, M., Julien‐Laferrière, S., Bossu, R. & Massin, F. (2021). Near Real‐Time Earthquake Line‐Source Models Derived from Felt Reports. Seismological Research Letters 2021 92 (3), 1961–1978. doi: 10.1785/0220200244

Dallo, I., Marti, M.  (2021). Why should I use a multi-hazard app? Assessing the public's information needs and app feature preferences in a participatory process. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction  57. doi: 10.1016/j.ijdrr.2021.102197

Mizrahi, L., Nandan, S., Wiemer, S.  (2021). The Effect of Declustering on the Size Distribution of Mainshocks. Seismological Research Letters. doi: 10.1785/0220200231

Dallo, I., Stauffacher, M. and Marti, M. (2020). What defines the success of of maps and additional information on a multi-hazard platform?. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 49. doi: 10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101761

Rinaldi, A.P., Improta, L., Hainzl, S., Catalli, F., Urpi, L. and Wiemer S. (2020). Combined approach of poroelastic and earthquake nucleation applied to the reservoir-induced seismic activity in the Val d’Agri area, Italy. Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 12 (4), 802-810. doi: 10.1016/j.jrmge.2020.04.003

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CORE is an EU project funded by the European Commission under Horizon2020 research and innovation programme and involves 19 partners in Europe. Its main objective is to make societies better prepared to face and overcome natural and human-made disasters. Through a transdisciplinary approach, scientists from different fields and various stakeholders from society are involved. The project will seek to put the citizens at the core of disaster resilience and preparedness, supporting communities to enhance their preparedness and rapid recovery.

Defining at best the expected scenarios and the difficulties of individuals and socio-economic structures is essential to make recoveries more effective and efficient. Recommendations and guidelines from CORE will foster a culture of improved preparedness, adaptability, and resilience to risks. In addition, particular attention will be paid to the most vulnerable groups during such disasters: the disabled, the elderly, people with economic difficulties, women, or children. Great attention will also be paid to education in schools, training activities and communication through social media.

Project Leader at SED

Dr. Michèle Marti

SED Project Members

Prof. Stefan Wiemer, Dr. Florian Haslinger, Dr. Banu Mena Cabrera, Dr. Michèle Marti, Irina Dallo

Involved Institutions

University of Salerno (UNISA), Institute for Sustainable Society and Innovation (ISSNOVA), Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (ETHZ), International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), University of Huddersfield (HUD), Hanken School of Economics (HANKEN), Saher (Europe) OU (SAHER), Public Safety Communication Europe Forum (PSCE), Institut de Science et Ethique (ISE), College of Law and Business (CLB), Mto Safety AB (MTO), Sixense Engineering (RESALLIENCE), Euro-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC), National Authority for Fire & Rescue (NAFR), Italian National Fire Corp (INFC), Italian Red Cross-Branch of Vicenza (CRI), Ufficio Comune per la sostenibilità ambientale - Joint Office for Environmental sustainability (UCSA), University of Applied sciences for public service in Bavaria (HFOD), Austrian Red Cross (AusRC)

Funding Source

EU Horizon 2020 research programme

Duration

2021-2024

Key Words

emergency management (operations), disaster preparedness, community resilience, natural and human-made disasters, decrease technological and industrial risks, population training, protection of citizens (goods and people), safety culture, artificial intelligence, cascading effects, vulnerable groups

Research Field

Rapid impact assessment, risk framework of cascades human behaviour, social media, risk perception, misinformation, cost-benefit analysis, early warning systems

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InSight (Interior exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) is a NASA Discovery Program mission that will deploy a single geophysical lander on Mars to study its deep interior. This is the first comprehensive surface-based geophysical investigation of Mars. The overarching mission goals are to illuminate the fundamentals of formation and evolution of terrestrial (Earth-like) planets by investigating the interior structure and processes of Mars, and more specifically to determine the thickness, structure and composition of the crust, mantle and core, and to measure the rate and distribution of seismic activity and the rate of meteorite impacts. The Mission should land in November 2018 and have a lifetime of about two Earth years. A set of 3-component broadband and short period seismometers (collectively known as SEIS) will be deployed beside the lander. In additional, InSight will also deploy a heat flow probe (HP3), a geodetic experiment (RISE), a magnetometer, and meteorological sensors. Seismological investigations of Mars have so far been based on modeling and synthetic data; starting in 2018, waveform data will be returned from Mars and the era of 'Seismology on Mars' will begin.

Building on our expertise and infrastructure for earthquake monitoring and seismic data processing on Earth, the SED will take the lead role in the building a catalogue of seismic events recorded by SEIS (the 'Marsquake Service’). This service will comprise automatic and reviewed event detection and characterization of local and teleseismic events, as well as meteor impacts. The goal of this service is to provide a comprehensive high-quality event catalogue for Mars that is critical to the SEIS project, in particular as input to the development of Martian crustal and deep structure models.

We are adapting advanced single-seismometer analysis techniques developed on the Earth to provide locations for Martian seismicity. Creating the Marsquake Service is a collaboration between the SED and the SEG groups at the ETH Zurich.

Project Leader at SED

Prof. Domenico Giardini (InSight Co-I)

SED Project Members

Dr. John Clinton (Seismic Network Manager, InSight Co-I)

Dr. Amir Khan (Affiliated Scientist)

Dr. Martin van Driel (PostDoc)

Dr. Maren Böse (Project Scientist)

Dr. Fabian Euchner (PostDoc)

Dr. Savas Ceylan (IT Specialist)

Funding Source

SNF / SSO

Duration

2015 - 2018

Key Words

Planetary seismology, Mars, InSight, single-station approaches, seismic monitoring

Research Field

Link To Project Website

Project Website

Induzierte Seismizität

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Over the last decade induced seismicity has become an important topic of discussion, especially owing to the concern that industrial activities could cause damaging earthquakes. Large magnitude induced seismic events are a risk for the population and structures, as well as an obstacle for the development of new techniques for the exploitation of underground georesources. The problem of induced seismicity is particularly important for the future development of geothermal energy in Europe, in fact deep geothermal energy exploitation projects such as Basel (2006) and St Gallen (2013) have been aborted due to the felt induced earthquakes they created and an increasing risk aversion of the general population. Induced seismicity is thus an unwanted product of such industrial operations but, at the same time, induced earthquakes are also a required mechanism to increase the permeability of rocks, enhancing reservoir performances. Analysis of induced microseismicity allows to obtain the spatial distribution of fractures within the reservoir, which can help, not only to identify active faults that may trigger large induced seismic events, but also to optimize hydraulic stimulation operations and to locate the regions with higher permeability, enhancing energy production. The project COSEISMIQ integrates seismic monitoring and imaging techniques, geomechanical models and risk analysis methods with the ultimate goal of implementing innovative tools for the management of the risks posed by induced seismicity and demonstrate their usefulness in a commercial scale application in Iceland.

Seismic stations of the COSEISMIQ project (PDF, 0.13 MB)

Project Leader at SED

Prof. Stefan Wiemer

SED Project Members

John Clinton, Francesco Grigoli, Florian Haslinger, Lukas Heiniger, Philipp Kaestli, Raphael Moser, Anne Obermann, Roman Racine, Antonio Pio Rinaldi, Vanille Ritz, Luca Scarabello.

Funding Source

EU Geothermica Program

Duration

3 years (start in May 2018)

Key Words

Induced Seismicity

Research Field

Induced Seismicity, Earthquake Hazard & Risk, Real-time microseismic monitoring

Link To Project Website

Project Website

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As a local, versatile, clean, and renewable energy source, geothermal energy can contribute to achieving Switzerland’s energy and climate objectives. Worldwide, numerous geothermal projects have been successfully operating for decades. Unfortunately, some have also been aborted during the reservoir construction or operation phase. Today, adequate risk governance of induced seismicity is perceived as essential for establishing safe and economically viable geothermal projects.

In Switzerland, the subsurface is under the sovereignty of the cantons. Therefore, the cantonal authorities in charge of the permitting, concessioning, and regulatory oversight must have access to independent, state-of-the-art seismological expertise. Furthermore, independent seismic monitoring and competent project oversight are important contributions to risk governance and can build and maintain public acceptance of geothermal projects.

GEOBEST2020+ ensures that the Swiss Seismological Service (SED), the federal agency for earthquakes, can provide seismological expertise and baseline seismic monitoring services to the cantons at no cost and independently of the operators of geothermal projects:

Seismological consulting:

SED experts can support the cantonal authorities with:

  • defining induced-seismicity-related content requirements for all relevant cantonal authorizations mandatory for geothermal projects,
  • reviewing seismological aspects of permit and concession requests submitted by the project operators,
  • providing independent, canton-specific information on geothermal energy and seismicity to the public.

Seismic monitoring and earthquake alarming:

SED can provide the baseline seismic monitoring, including:

  • installation of a customized seismological monitoring network,
  • automatic real-time earthquake analysis, rapidly reviewed by experienced seismologists,
  • earthquake alerting via SMS and email to defined stakeholders,
  • providing a rapid preliminary assessment of the natural or human-made origin of seismic events,
  • operation of a public, project-specific web page with real-time earthquake and background information,
  • operation of a public-access archive of the recorded seismological data.
Project Leader at SED

Dr. Toni Kraft

SED Project Members

Dr. Veronica Antunes, Dr. Philippe Roth, Prof. Dr. Stefan Wiemer

Funding Source

EnergieSchweiz, Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE)

Duration

from 2020

Key Words

Induced Seismicity, Induced Earthquake Hazard & Risk, Real-time monitoring, Support and consultancy

Research Field

Induced Seismicity, Induced Earthquake Hazard & Risk, Real-time monitoring, Support and consultancy

Link To Project Website

Project Website

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One of the unsolved challenges for deep geothermal projects is how to mitigate unacceptably large, induced earthquakes. Unfortunately, the processes and conditions underpinning induced seismicity are still not sufficiently well understood to make useful predictions of the likely seismic response to geothermal reservoir development and exploitation. This predictability is further reduced by the sparse knowledge of the hydro-mechanical and geological conditions in the deep underground, and our lacking ability to map them well enough with current technologies. The seismic response to deep geothermal operations can, however, be monitored in real-time by seismological methods. These methods are, therefore, the core element of any traffic light system (TLS) for induced seismicity that was proposed in recent years.

In this project SIAMIS-GT (Improvement of SeIsmological Analysis Methods to better support cantonal authorities in questions related to Induced Seismicity in deep GeoThermal projects), we want to improve seismological analysis methods for monitoring induced seismicity by taking advantage of the waveform similarity observed in these earthquake sequences. The goal is to enable the SED to inform authorities, project developers and the population faster and more accurately about induced earthquakes that may occur during geotechnical projects (e.g., geothermal, mining, tunneling, etc.). We plan to apply similarity and repeating earthquake analysis to induced seismicity to improve the understanding of the source mechanics (i.e., distinction of natural versus induced seismicity, improved detection, localization and characterization). With these methods we also hope to be able to resolve aseismic changes in the subsurface that cannot be resolved using classical methods in real-time.

Figure on the left: Illustration of the basic principles of similarity location. Upper left: waveforms of 7 template earthquakes used for template matching of the Diemtigen swarm. Upper right: Epicenter map of 306 relocated earthquakes color-coded by highest similarity to the 7 templates. Red diamonds indicate the location of the templates. Notice that earthquakes cluster closely around the template they are associated to by waveform similarity. Bottom: Relationship between inter-event distance and waveform similarity for each template with respect to the 306 relocated earthquakes. Color indicates the reference template. It can be clearly seen that similarity decreases strongly with inter-event distance and that individual relationships can be derived for every reference template.
Project Leader at SED

Dr. Toni Kraft

Funding Source

Swiss Federal Office of Energy

Duration

2016-2021

Key Words

Induced Seismicity, Induced Earthquake Hazard and Risk, Real-time monitoring, Support and consultancy

Research Field

Induced Seismicity

Publications

Simon, V., T. Kraft, T. Diehl, T. Tormann, M. Herrmann & S. Wiemer (2019). High-Resolution Imaging of Foreshock Patterns in Microearthquake Sequences in Switzerland. AGU Annual Meeting, San Francisco, 8.-12. Dec. 2019. 

Simon, V., T. Kraft, T. Diehl & M. Herrmann (2019). Analysis of seasonality in microseismic sequences. Hydro-Seismo-Tectonics Workshop, UNIFR, Fribourg, 18. Oct. 2019.. 

Simon, V., T. Kraft, & T. Diehl (2019). High-resolution Analysis of Seismicity Patterns in Swiss Microearthquake Sequences. SISM@lp-Swarm Workshop, ISTerre Grenoble, 21 May 2019. 

Simon, V., T. Kraft, T. Diehl & S. Wiemer (High-resolution Analysis of Seismicity Patterns in Swiss Microearthquake Sequences). Repeating Earthquake Workshop, ENS Paris, 3-4 July, 2019.

Simon, V., T. Kraft, T. Diehl & S. Wiemer  (2019). Systematic classification of seismicity patterns in microearthquake sequences in Switzerland. EGU Annual Meeting, Vienna, Austria, 7–12 April 2019.. 

Kraft, T., Herrmann, M., Simon, V., & Diehl, T.  (2019). What drove the Basel sequence? Inferences from a consistent relocated catalog of the last 12 years. AGUFM T33A-02. 

Kraft, T. (2019). SIAMIS-GT - 4st Annual Report. Report of the Swiss Seismological Service to Federal Office of Energy 25 Nov 2019, 8. 

Herrmann, M., Kraft, T., Tormann, T., Scarabello, L., & Wiemer, S.  (2019). A Consistent High Resolution Catalog of Induced Seismicity in Basel Based on Matched Filter Detection and Tailored Post Processing. JGR 2019JB017468. doi: 10.1029/2019JB017468

Simon, V., T. Kraft, T. Tormann, T. Diehl, M. Herrmann, L. Scarabello (2018). Possible precursory signals in foreshocks to ML ≤ 3.2 earthquakes in Diemtigen, Switzerland. International School of physics «EnricoFermi», Coures 202, Mechannics of Faulting, 2.-7. Jul. 2018, Varenna, Italy.. 

Simon, V., T. Kraft, T. Tormann, T. Diehl, M. Herrmann, L. Scarabello  (2018). The Swiss-army-knife approach to nearly automatic microearthquake analyis for natural and induced sequences. EGU Annual Meeting, 8–13. Apr. 2018, Vienna, Austria.. 

Kraft, T. (2018). SIAMIS-GT - 3st Annual Report. Report of the Swiss Seismological Service to Federal Office of Energy 28 Nov 2018, 7. 

Kraft, T. (2018). SIAMIS-GT - Interim Report. Report of the Swiss Seismological Service to Federal Office of Energy 13 Jul 2018, 7. 

Vouillamoz, N., T. Kraft, M. Abednego and T. Diehl  (2017). Lowering microseismic detection threshold in Northeastern Switzerland using sonogram analysis and template matching. NAGRA Arbeitsbereicht, NAB 16-72, Wettingen, November 2016, unpublished, 53. 

Simon, V., T.Kraft, T. Tormann, T. Diehl, M. Herrmann, L. Scarabello  (2017). The Swissarmy-knife approach to nearly automatic microearthquake analyis for natural and induced sequences. Swiss Geoscience Meeting, 17.-18. Nov. 2017, Davos, Switzerland. 

Simon, V.  (2017). High precision analysis of natural earthquake sequences in Switzerland. Master Thesis, IDEA League Joint Masters Program, ETH Zurich, 11 August 2017. 

Kraft, T. (2017). SIAMIS-GT - 2nd Annual Report. Report of the Swiss Seismological Service to Federal Office of Energy 14 Nov 2017, 7. 

Kraft, T., Simon, V.M., Tormann, T., Diehl, T., Herrmann, M. (2017). The Swiss-ArmyKnife Approach to the Nearly Automatic Analysis for Microearthquake Sequences. AGU Fall Meeting, 11. - 15. Dec. 2017, New Orleans, USA. 

Kraft, T., M. Herrmann and T. Diehl  (2017). Analysis of induced microseismicity at the geothermal project Schlattingen, Thurgau. Nagra Projektbericht NPB 16-12, Wettingen, 18.  Link

Kraft, T., T. Diehl, T. Tormann, M. Herrmann, B. Frieg (2017). Induced Seismicity at the geothermal project Schlattingen, CH. 2nd Schatzalp Workshop on Induced Seismicity, 14.-17.3.2017, Davos, Switzerland. 

Herrmann, M., T. Kraft, T. Tormann, L. Scarabello & S. Wiemer  (2017). A consistent high-resolution catalog of the induced earthquakes in Basel based on template matching. 2nd Schatzalp Workshop on Induced Seismicity, 14.-17.3.2017, Davos, Switzerland. 

Wiemer, S., T. Tormann, M. Herrmann, D. Karvounis & T. Kraft  (2016). ) Induced Seismicity at the Basel Deep Heat Mining Site. Investigation of seismicity rate changes after the permanent shut-in of Basel-1 in 2011 and recommendations for hazard mitigation. Report of the Swiss Seismological Service to Canton Basel Stadt Nov. 2016, 38. 

Kraft, T. (2016). SIAMIS-GT - 1st Annual Report. Report of the Swiss Seismological Service to Federal Office of Energy 12 Dec 2016, 6. 

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This is the 3rd subproject of the „ENSI – SED-Erdbebenforschung zu Schweizer Kernanlagen“ project.

Subproject 3 aims at studying the relevancy of induced seismicity for the disposal of nuclear waste at geological depth. We will update/develop physics-based modeling of induced seismicity, and we will apply such models to the case of nuclear waste disposal. Moreover, the approach will be validated by reproducing the observations from the “Fault Slip experiment” at Mont Terri underground laboratory. Finally, numerical modeling will be performed to study the seismicity induced by tunnel excavation, as well as to better understand the possible occurrence of seismicity by temperature changes around disposal site. Collaboration with Subproject 1 and 2 will be crucial to properly estimate the hazard and risk of induced seismicity on geological nuclear waste disposal.

Project Leader at SED

Donat Fäh

SED Project Members

Antonio P. Rinaldi, Luca Urpi

Involved Institutions

SED

Funding Source

Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate - ENSI

Duration

2014-2018 (1st phase), 2018-2022 (2nd phase)

Key Words

Geomechanics, Induced seismicity, THM modeling

Research Field

Erdbebeninduzierte Phänomene

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Tsunamis do not only happen in oceans, but they do also occur in lakes. As part of an interdisciplinary project entitled “Lake Tsunamis: Causes, Consequences and Hazard” (2017-2021), a workflow for the assessment of the tsunami potential on peri-alpine lakes was developed. The workflow focuses on the tsunami generation by subaqueous mass movements. However, it has been documented that delta failures have caused considerable tsunamis on peri-alpine lakes. So far, delta failures have been widely neglected in the assessment of lake tsunamis; mainly as the triggering and failure mechanisms have not been investigated in detail, and as important parameters such as the thickness and failure volumes are not known.
TSUNAMI-CH Phase 2 aims at extending the workflow for the assessment of the lake tsunami hazard by including delta failures. In addition,  subaerial mass movements are also included as triggers of tsunamis in the workflow. The project, which is funded by the Federal Office for the Environment, consists of 3 work packages (WPs), which are conducted at SED (“WP wave simulation” and “WP synthesis”) and the University of Bern (“WP delta”), in collaboration with the Laboratory of Hydraulics, Hydrology and Glaciology (VAW).

WP delta will characterize various deltas in Swiss peri-alpine lakes, and identify the ones that are susceptible to failure. The resulting geodatabase will store various delta parameters that are relevant for estimating the tsunami potential.

WP wave simulation extends the workflow for the modelling of the tsunami generation, propagation and inundation that was developed in the preceding project. Numerical modelling is conducted with BASEMENT, a freeware simulation tool for hydro- and morphodynamic modelling developed at VAW.

WP Synthesis will document the comprehensive workflow for the assessment of the tsunami hazard.

Project Leader at SED

Michael Strupler, Stefan Wiemer

SED Project Members

Michael Strupler, Stefan Wiemer

Funding Source

Federal Office for the Environment FOEN

Duration

2022-2023

Key Words

Lake tsunami, delta failures, subaerial mass movements, Tsunami hazard, Swiss Lakes, FOEN

Research Field

Earthquake Hazard & Risk

Link To Project Website

Project Website

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In the frame of this joint SNF and F.R.S-FNRS project with Belgium partners from the University of Liege, we study the highly variable seismic response of rock instabilities, and related slope failure potential of different mountain morphologies. Systematic ambient-vibration measurements at different rock slope instabilities with array-configurations allow to analyze the influence of layering and material of weathered rocks on the propagation of surface waves and amplification of ground motion. Normal mode vibrations can be observed on various rock structures with pronounced block structures. Application areas were selected in Belgium, Romania and Switzerland.

A main goal of this project is to better understand the relation between wave-field properties like directivity, amplification, and eigenfrequencies, and geotechnical characteristics of rock slope instabilities. Additionally, the influence of weather and climate, as well as long-term changes in the dynamic response of the landslides are examined in detail using semi-permanent or permanent seismic stations. With such installations we study the vibrations of instabilities during earthquakes, which will help to develop models for earthquake induced mass movements.  

Experimental seismological techniques will be further developed with enhanced imaging capability and sensitivity. The expected results have the potential to be applied directly in hazard analysis and risk reduction measures.

Project Leader at SED

Prof. Donat Fäh

SED Project Members

Franziska Glüer

Involved Institutions

University of Liege

Funding Source

SNF

Duration

2018-2022

Key Words

Seismic hazard, earthquake induced effects, engineering seismology

Research Field

Publications

Glueer, F., Häusler, M., Gischig, V. and Fäh, D. (2021). Coseismic Stability Assessment of a Damaged Underground Ammunition Storage Chamber Through Ambient Vibration Recordings and Numerical Modelling. Frontiers in Earth Science. doi: 10.3389/feart.2021.773155

Häusler, M., Gischig, V., Thöny, R., Glueer, F. and D. Fäh (2021). . Monitoring the changing seismic site response of a fast-moving rockslide (Brienz/Brinzauls, Switzerland). Geophysical Journal International  229 (1), 299-310. doi: 10.3929/ethz-b-000474116

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In this ETHZ-funded project we analyze ambient vibration and earthquake recordings to characterize and investigate the dynamic response of unstable rock slopes. We perform systematic measurements and interpretation of ambient vibrations at known unstable rock slopes, both with single stations and array-configurations. The eigenfrequencies, eigenmodes, directivity, and amplification of ambient vibrations are identified and compared to geotechnical investigations. The interpretation of recordings targets the estimation of the potential landslide volume and is supported by numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation in fractured media. A classification scheme based on the seismic response has been introduced. Each class indicates specific properties of a rock instability. The two main classes found are the volume-controlled sites and the depth-controlled sites. The extensive database will be extended with instabilities on high-alpine permafrost locations.

Moreover, both short-term and long-term monitoring is undertaken to understand the time evolution of the slope structure. Short-term monitoring is performed at the Alpe di Roscioro (Preonzo) site which represents a unique opportunity to monitor a slope close to collapse. A second semi-permanent station will be installed on the large rock instability above Brienz (Grisons). A main goal of the monitoring is to understand the effect of weather and climate on the dynamic behavior of the rock and its stability. Long-term monitoring is based on the analysis of available past recordings from existing seismic networks, especially for stations located at or very close to steep cliffs. In a later stage of the project, the effect of earthquakes on the rock slope stability will be evaluated using numerical modelling. It will be evaluated, if ambient noise measurements can provide a direct proxy for the seismic vulnerability of rock slope instabilities. The expected results have the potential to be applied directly in hazard analysis and risk reduction measures.

Project Leader at SED

Prof. Donat Fäh

SED Project Members

Mauro Häusler, Ulrike Kleinbrod

Funding Source

ETHZ

Duration

2013 - 2021

Key Words

unstable rock slopes, ambient vibrations, ground motion modelling

Research Field

Seismic hazard, earthquake induced effects, engineering seismology

Publications

Burjánek, J., Gischig, V., Moore, J. R., & Fäh, D.  (2017). Ambient vibration characterization and monitoring of a rock slope close to collapse. Geophysical Journal International 212(1), 297-310. 

Kleinbrod, U., Burjánek, J., & Fäh, D.  (2017). On the seismic response of instable rock slopes based on ambient vibration recordings. Earth, Planets and Space 69(1), 126. 

Kleinbrod, U., Burjánek, J., Hugentobler, M., Amann, F., & Fäh, D.  (2017). A comparative study on seismic response of two unstable rock slopes within same tectonic setting but different activity level. Geophysical Journal International 211(3), 1428-1448. 

Burjánek, J., Gischig, V., Moore, J.R. & D. Fäh (2018). Ambient vibration characterization and monitoring of a rock slope close to collapse. Geophysical Journal International 212, 297-310. doi: 10.1093/gji/ggx424ss

Weber, S., Fäh, D., Beutel., J., Faillettaz, J., Gruber, S., Vieli, A. (2018). Ambient seismic vibrations in steep bedrock permafrost used to infer variations of ice-fill in fractures. Earth and Planetary Science Letters Vol. 501, 119-127.  Link doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2018.08.042

Kleinbrod, U., Burjánek, J., Fäh, D. (2019). Ambient vibration classification of unstable rock slopes: A systematic approach. Engineering Geology Vol. 249, 198 - 217.  Link doi: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2018.12.012

Häusler, M., Michel, C. Burjánek, J. and D. Fäh (2019). Fracture Network Imaging on Rock Slope Instabilities Using Resonance Mode Analysis. Geophysical Research Letters Vol. 46, Issue 12, 6497-6506.  Link doi: 10.1029/2019GL083201

Preiswerk, L., Michel, C., Walter, F. & D. Fäh (2019). Effects of geometry on the seismic wavefield of Alpine glaciers. Annals of Glaciology 79 (60), 112 - 124. doi: 10.1017/aog.2018.27

Burjánek, J., Kleinbrod, U., & Fäh, D. (2019). Modeling the Seismic Response of Unstable Rock Mass With Deep Compliant Fractures. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth 124 (12), 13039-13059. doi: 10.1029/2019jb018607

Oprsal, I., Thun, J., Burjánek, J. and D. Fäh (2020). Measurements and modeling of the post-failure micro-deformations and tilts of the Preonzo unstable slope, Alpe di Roscioro, Switzerland. Engineering Geology Volume 280, Jan. 2021, 105919. doi: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2020.105919

Häusler, M., Michel, C., Burjánek, J., and Fäh, D. (2021). Monitoring the Preonzo rock slope instability using resonance mode analysis. JGR Earth Surface Vol. 126 (4). doi: 10.1029/2020JF005709

Häusler, M., Geimer, P. R., Finnegan, R., Fäh, D., and Moore, J. R. (2021). An update on techniques to assess normal-mode behavior of rock arches by ambient vibrations. Earth Surf. Dynam. 9, 1441–1457. doi: 10.5194/esurf-9-1441-2021

Glueer, F., Häusler, M., Gischig, V. and Fäh, D. (2021). Coseismic Stability Assessment of a Damaged Underground Ammunition Storage Chamber Through Ambient Vibration Recordings and Numerical Modelling. Front. Earth Sci. 17 December 2021. doi: 10.3389/feart.2021.773155

Häusler, M., Gischig, V., Thöny, R., Glueer, F. and D. Fäh (2021). Monitoring the changing seismic site response of a fast-moving rockslide (Brienz/Brinzauls, Switzerland). Geophysical Journal International  229 (1), 299-310. doi: 10.1093/gji/ggab473

Weber, S., Beutel, J., Häusler, M., Geimer, P.R., Fäh, D. and Moore, J.R. (2021). Spectral amplification of ground motion linked to resonance of large-scale mountain landforms. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2021.117295

Erdbebenfrühwarnung

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Scientists from the SED are exploring the potential of Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) in Central America. This is a multi-phase project funded by Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) at the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (FDFA). In Phase 1 (2016-2017), SED worked with colleagues at INETER (a government agency in Nicaragua responsible for Natural Hazards, who operate the national seismic network), to build and implement a prototype EEW system in Nicaragua. In Phase 2 (2018-2020), this prototype system will be extended to other countries in Central America with the collaboration of local scientists, and we will explore how a public EEW could be implemented.

The region suffers from large tsunamigenic earthquakes generated along the subduction zone, and also moderate crustal earthquakes that have in the recent past produced heavy damage, such as the M6.2 1972 earthquake that devastated Managua. The subduction zone events are often characterized by slow rupture velocity (most recently a M7.7 1992 earthquake - the first slow earthquake ever documented - and a M7.3 in 2014)

Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) is a tool that can rapidly characterize on-going earthquakes, and potentially provide seconds to 10s of seconds notification of impending strong shaking in advance of its occurrence. EEW can play an important role as part of a seismic risk reduction program, which is critical in the Central American region that has such a high seismic hazard. Additionally, making a seismic network capable of operating and maintaining an EEW system requires the network to achieve the highest standards in network performance - including station quality, speed and reliability of data communications, and robustness of the seismic network hub that runs the EEW software. Optimal network performance is also critical for other applications such as tsunami warning, volcano monitoring, and enables downstream scientific studies, eg on local Earth structure.

On 9 June 2016, just weeks after the first software was installed and before efforts to optimise had begun, a shallow M6.3 event occurred on the border with El Salvador that was detected by our system after 29s. Though far from the delay time required for operational EEW, this does demonstrate the promise of the existing infrastructure. With an ideal seismic network (all stations fully operational, recording strong motion and with minimal data delay) the existing network density can provide first EEW alerts within 8-12s for shallow on-shore earthquakes. This corresponds to a blind zone on the order of 20-30km around the epicenter where no advanced warning will be available. Outside the blind zone, for large earthquakes, this type of EEW can provide warning in advance of the strongest shaking for areas that will experience shaking of intensity VI on the Modified Mercalli Scale.  

Transfer of EEW capacity from SED to Central American Institutes is feasible because we all use the same basic software for seismic network monitoring - SeisComP3 - that the SED has used to develop EEW. SED use 2 standard algorithms to provide EEW - the Virtual Seismologist and the Finite Fault Detector. We use the EEW Display (EEWD) to deliver desktop alerts to early adopters and testers.

EEW can work in Central America because the seismic networks are already relatively dense and data sharing is well-established and effective - necessary as earthquakes can have impacts beyond a single country.

Currently, EEW alerts in the region are delayed or initially incorrect primarily because the seismic networks are relatively unreliable and not yet optimised for EEW. By adopting a long term strategy that focuses on enabling EEW, including adding additional strong motion stations, this will improve.

The Phase 2 project objectives are to 1) review the performance of, and propose improvements to the seismic network in the region, in an effort to optimise their capacity for EEW; 2) to develop EEW algorithms tailored to the seismicity of Central America, with implementation in standard open source software, and transfer know-how and operation to local monitoring institutions; 3) head towards public EEW by engaging with potential key end-users, civil defence and governments, exploring technical means by which EEW can be provided to public and private users, and communicating with social scientists on what is the most effective EEW message provide to the public, and how to communicate this to the public.

Project Leader at SED

Dr. John Clinton

SED Project Members

Frédérick Massin, Roman Racine, Maren Böse

Involved Institutions

INETER, MARN, RSN-UCR, OVSICORI-UNA, INSIVUMEH

Funding Source

Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (DEZA / SDC)

Duration

Phase 2: May 2018 - April 2021; Phase 1: January 2016 - January 2018

Key Words

Earthquake Early Warning, Seismic Networks, Nicaragua, Central America, INETER, DEZA/SDC

Research Field

Earthquake Early Warning, Real-time monitoring, Network Seismology

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California, Oregon, and Washington are currently implementing a public earthquake early warning (EEW) system, called ShakeAlert. To detect earthquakes and to generate alerts, ShakeAlert feeds data from the seismic and geodetic networks operated along the US West Coast into two algorithms: the point-source EPIC (formerly known as ElarmS and Onsite), and the finite-source Finite-Fault Rupture Detector (FinDer) algorithm. Alert messages from EPIC and FinDer are aggregated into a single alert feed.

ShakeAlert started in 2012 as a demonstration system for EEW and provided warnings of imminent strong ground shaking to a selected group of test users. At that stage, the Virtual Seismologist (VS; Cua and Heaton, 2009), implemented and tested by the SED, was part of the system. In 2013, California passed legislation to implement a public warning system. After the US Congress approved the funding in 2014, the transition to a public system started. A limited public roll-out of ShakeAlert started in California, Oregon, and Washington in the fall of 2018.  About one year later the testing of public alerting on mobile devices (phones) was rolled out in California. Washington, and Oregon followed in 2021. Alerts can be received as Wireless Emergency Alerts (WEA) on mobile devices, as well as through apps (e.g. MyShake, QuakeAlertUSA, and ShakeReadySD), or through a ShakeAlert-powered earthquake alert feature that is integrated into the Android Operating System.

The SED collaborates with the ShakeAlert team (US Geological Survey, Caltech, UC Berkeley, University of Washington, and University of Oregon) in the development,  implementation, and testing of FinDer (Böse et al., 2012; Böse et al., 2015; Böse et al., 2018).

Project Leader at SED

Dr. Maren Böse (current), Dr. Georgia Cua (Phase I + II), Dr. John Clinton (Phase III)

SED Project Members

Frederick Massin, Michael Fischer (former member), Marta Caprio (former member), Men-Andrin Meier (former member), Yannik Behr (former member)

Involved Institutions

United States Geological Survey (USGS), California Governor’s Office of Emergency Services, California Geological Survey, California Institute of Technology (Caltech), University of California Berkeley, University of Washington, University of Oregon, ETH Zurich

Funding Source

United States Geological Survey

Duration

Since 2012

Key Words

Earthquake Early Warning system for California and the Pacific Northwest of the United States

Research Field

Earthquake Early Warning

Link To Project Website

Project Website

Publications

Behr, Y., J. F. Clinton, P. Kästli, C. Cauzzi, and M.-A. Meier (2015). Anatomy of an Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) Alert : Predicting Time Delays for an End-to-End EEW System. Seismol. Res. Lett. 86 (3), 1-11. doi: 10.1785/0220140179

Böse, M., D.E. Smith, C. Felizardo, M.-A. Meier, T.H. Heaton, J.F. Clinton (2018). FinDer v.2: Improved Real-time Ground-Motion Predictions for M2-M9 with Seismic Finite-Source Characterization. Geophys. J. Int. 212, 725-742. 

Böse, M., C. Felizardo, & T.H. Heaton (2015). Finite-Fault Rupture Detector (FinDer): Going Real-Time in Californian ShakeAlert Warning System. Seismol. Res. Lett.  86 (6), 1692-1704. 

Böse, M., R. Graves, D. Gill, S. Callaghan, and P. Maechling  (2014). CyberShake-Derived Ground-Motion Prediction Models for the Los Angeles Region with Applica-tion to EEW. Geophys. J. Int. 198 (3), 1438-1457. 

Böse, M., R. Allen, H. Brown, C. Cua, M. Fischer, E. Hauksson, T. Heaton, M. Hellweg, M. Liukis, D. Neu-hauser, P. Maechling, P. and CISN EEW Group (2013). CISN ShakeAlert – An Earthquake Early Warning Demonstration System for California. In: F. Wenzel and J. Zschau: Early Warning for Geological Disasters - Scientific Methods and Current Practice (ISBN: 978-3-642-12232-3). Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York: 

Böse, M., T.H. Heaton, & E. Hauksson (2012). Real-time Finite Fault Rupture Detector (FinDer) for Large Earthquakes. Geophys. J. Int. 191 (2), 803-812. 

Böse, M., T. Heaton and E. Hauksson  (2012). Rapid estimation of earthquake source and ground-motion parameters for earthquake early warning using data from single three-component broadband or strong-motion sensor. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am.  102 (2), 738-750. doi: 10.1785/0120110152

Böse, M. & T.H. Heaton  (2010). Probabilistic Prediction of Rupture Length, Slip and Seismic Ground Motions for an Ongoing Rupture: implications for Early Warning for Large Earthquakes. Geophys. J. Int.  183 (2), 1014-1030. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2010.04774.x

Chung, A., M. Meier, J. Andrews, M. Böse, B. Crowell, J. McGuire, D. Smith  (2020). ShakeAlert Earthquake Early Warning System Performance during the 2019 Ridgecrest Earthquake Sequence. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 110 (4), 1904–1923. doi: 10.1785/0120200032

Cua, G. B., M. Fischer, T. H. Heaton, and S. Wiemer  (2009). Real-time Performance of the Virtual Seismologist Earthquake Early Warning Algorithm in Southern California. Seismol. Res. Lett.  80 (5), 740-747. doi: 10.1785/gssrl.80.5.740

Given, D.D., Cochran, E.S., Heaton, T., Hauksson, E., Allen, R., Hellweg, P., Vidale, J., and Bodin, P.  (2014). Technical implementation plan for the ShakeAlert production system—An Earthquake Early Warning system for the West Coast of the United States. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2014–1097, 25. doi: 10.3133/ofr20141097

Meier, M.-A., T. Heaton, and J. Clinton (2015). The Gutenberg Algorithm: Evolutionary Bayesian Magnitude Estimates for Earthquake Early Warning with a Filter Bank. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 105 (5), 2774-2786. doi: 10.1785/0120150098

Presentations

Earthquakes are controlled by the properties of the underlying fault or fault system, along which rupture is occurring. For example,

  • the lateral segmentation of faults controls, where earthquake ruptures initiate, propagate, and arrest;
  • faults are embedded in permanent damage zones with modified elastic properties, which enhance slip and speed through increased rock compliance;
  • faults become more mature over time.
  • structural maturity modulates slip, rupture extent, stress drop, and associated ground-motions.

In the FAULTS_R_GEMS (Properties of FAULTS, a key to Realistic Generic Earthquake Modeling and hazard Simulation) project, we collaborate with scientists at Géoazur (Université Côte d'Azur), IFSTTAR Paris, Géosciences in Montpellier, Inria Sophia, LJAD in Nice, IPGP in Paris, IRSN, ENS Paris, the University of Arizona, and the University of Pisa, with the goal to better understand the interactions between seismic faults and earthquakes, and to use these findings to improve seismic hazard simulations and earthquake early warning (EEW) in terms of prior probabilities.

Project Leader at SED

Dr. Maren Böse

SED Project Members

Alexandra Hutchison, John Clinton, Frederick Massin

Involved Institutions

Géoazur, Nice; Géosciences Montpellier; IFSTTAR, ETH Zurich Inria Sophia; LJAD, Nice; IPGP Paris; IRSN; ENS Paris; University of Arizona, University of Pisa

Funding Source

French ANR

Duration

2017-2021

Key Words

fault properties, rupture simulations, ground-motions, earthquake early warning, prior probability, Bayesian statistics

Research Field

Earthquake Early Warning

Link To Project Website

Project Website

Publications

Böse, M., A.A. Hutchison, I. Manighetti, J. Li, F. Massin, and J.F. Clinton  (2021). FinDerS(+): Real-time Earthquake Slip Profiles and Magnitudes Estimated from Backprojected Slip with Consideration of Fault Source Maturity Gradient. Front. Earth Sci.. doi: 10.3389/feart.2021.685879

Böse, M., R. Graves, D. Gill, S. Callaghan, P. Maechling (2014). CyberShake-Derived Ground-Motion Prediction Models for the Los Angeles Region with Applica-tion to Earthquake Early Warning. Geophys. J. Int. 198 (3), 1438-1457. 

Böse, M., T.H. Heaton, & E. Hauksson  (2012). Real-time Finite Fault Rupture Detector (FinDer) for Large Earthquakes. Geophys. J. Int. 191 (2), 803-812. 

Böse, M. and T.H. Heaton (2010). Probabilistic Prediction of Rupture Length, Slip and Seismic Ground Motions for an Ongoing Rupture: implications for Early Warning for Large Earthquakes. Geophys. J. Int. 183 (2), 1014-1030. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2010.04774.x

Hutchison, A., M. Böse, and I. Manighetti  (2020). Improving early estimates of large earthquake's final fault lengths and magnitudes leveraging source fault structural maturity information. Geophys. Res. Lett.. doi: e2020GL087539

Manighetti I., Zigone D., Campillo M., and Cotton F.  (2009). Self-similarity of the largest-scale segmentation of the faults; Implications on earthquake be-havior. Earth. Planet. Sc. Lett.  288, 370-381. 

Perrin, C., Manighetti, I., Ampuero, J. P., Cappa, F., Gaudemer, Y.  (2016). Location of largest earthquake slip and fast rupture controlled by along-strike change in fault structural maturity due to fault growth. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 121. doi: 10.1002/2015JB012671

Radiguet, M., F. Cotton, I. Manighetti, M. Campillo, J. Douglas  (2009). Dependency of near-field ground motion on the structural maturity of the ruptured faults. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 99 (4), 2572-2581. 

Echtzeitüberwachung

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SED installed 3 seismological stations in the surroundings of the Mont Terri rock laboratory (St Ursanne, Canton Jura): 2 in the tunnel (stations MTI01 and MTI02) and 1 at the surface (MTI03). The Engineering Seismology group is in charge of the site characterization of these 3 stations. Therefore, a literature review and geophysical experiments are performed in order to propose velocity models able to reproduce the ground motion observed at these stations.

Project Leader at SED

Prof. Donat Fäh

SED Project Members

Valerio Poggi, Clotaire Michel, Sacha Barman, Robin Hansemann

Involved Institutions

SED

Funding Source

Swisstopo

Duration

2013-2023

Key Words

Earthquake monitoring, Ground motion at depth

Research Field

Seismotektonik

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This project is carried out under a contract with the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra). It provides an independent monitoring of the earthquake activity in the area of the proposed nuclear waste repositories in northern Switzerland. Detailed microseismic analysis will help to identify active fault zones and provide insights into the underlying seismotectonic processes in the vicinity of proposed sites, which has direct implications on the seismic hazard assessment. The SED provides results of this project in a transparent manner and all data acquired are made available for public access (see SED declaration on transparency [link]).

Within this project, the Swiss Seismological Service (SED) constructed ten new seismic stations in northeastern Switzerland and southern Germany to improve monitoring capabilities for very small earthquakes. Monitoring of weak seismic events in this region is challenging, because the study region is densely populated and sediments of the Molasse basin dominate the surface geology. A novel step-wise optimization approach was developed to ensure an optimum configuration of the new stations. To reduce the seismic background noise, three of the ten new sites were equipped with borehole-sensors, located at depths of 120–150 m below the surface. The new stations are fully operational since December 2013 and will observe the local seismicity in northern Switzerland for a minimum of ten years.

The newly installed stations complement the five stations installed in 2003 under a first agreement with Nagra. With these ‘Nagra’ stations, together with stations of the Swiss National Seismic Network and stations of neighboring networks in Germany, the project aims to monitor earthquakes down to magnitudes of 1.0 and smaller in the study area. We intend to achieve an overall catalog completeness of Mc 1.3 throughout northeastern Switzerland and location errors less than 0.5 km in epicenter and less than 2 km in focal depth within the study region. Accurate earthquake locations are essential for seismotectonic interpretations. Within this project we therefore aim to improve location accuracy, especially for focal depths, of past and future earthquakes in the region.

Project Leader at SED

Dr. Tobias Diehl

SED Project Members

Florian Haslinger, Stefan Wiemer, Donat Faeh, Toni Kraft, John Clinton

Involved Institutions

Nagra

Funding Source

Nagra

Duration

2013-2019

Key Words

seismicity, seismotectonic, earthquake location, seismic hazard, Molasse basin, nuclear waste repositories

Research Field

Seismotectonics (main), but also: Swiss Seismicity, Real-time monitoring, Earthquake Hazard & Risk

Publications

Starkbebenseismologie

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Since 2009, the Swiss Seismological Service is renewing and expanding its strong motion network. During the first phase, a total of 30 new accelerometer stations have been installed between 2009 and 2013, both replacing existing strong motion dial-up stations and installing new stations. During the ongoing second phase, 70 more stations are planned to be installed by 2020, including four borehole installations. The renewal project of the Swiss Strong Motion Network was approved by the Swiss Federal Council in February 2009. The project is monitored and supervised by a steering committee headed by the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN).

The goals of the enlargement of the Swiss strong motion network are a better spatial coverage of earthquake-prone regions, a better understanding of site effects and thus the verification and improvement of hazard models.

The epicentral areas of relevant past earthquakes have been instrumented in the first phase, namely Aigle (1584), Glarus (1971), Sarnen (1964), Sion-Sierre (1946), Yverdon (1929), Visp (1855), St. Gallen Rhine Valley (1796/96), Altdorf (1774), Brig (1755), Basel (1356), Churwalden/Vaz (1295/1991), etc. Furthermore, the city areas of Zürich, Geneva, Basel, Bern, Lausanne, St. Gallen, Lucerne, Sion, Solothurn, Locarno, Chur, Sierre are relevant sites for free-field installation.

In the second phase, additional epicentral areas of past earthquakes are targeted: Churwalden (1295), Ardez (1504), Ardon (1524), Arbon (1720), Kreuzlingen (1911), and Moudon (1933), among others. Further urban areas are instrumented as well, e.g. Biel, Fribourg, Neuchâtel, Thun and Winterthur. Another aspect of phase 2 is the densification of the network, especially in earthquake-prone areas such as the Valais.

The site selection is always a trade-off between the scientific objectives and the level of vibration disturbances. Modern stations are sensitive enough to record also small earthquakes, but the signal-to-noise ratio may be too low due to traffic and industries. At all sites, geophysical measurements are performed to characterize the site response. Recorded signals can then be interpreted, and sites classified according to the amplification at the site, which is basic information for improved site-specific seismic hazard studies.

Project Leader at SED

Prof. Donat Fäh

SED Project Members

Manuel Hobiger, Eric Zimmermann, Clotaire Michel, Franz Weber, Lukas Heiniger, John Clinton, Carlo Cauzzi

Involved Institutions

BAFU

Funding Source

BAFU

Duration

2013-2020

Key Words

SSMNet, strong motion, site characterization

Research Field

Swiss Seismicity, Earthquake Hazard & Risk

Publications

Michel C., Edwards B., Poggi V., Burjánek J., Roten D., Cauzzi C. & Fäh D.  (2014). Assessment of Site Effects in Alpine Regions through Systematic Site Characterization of Seismic Stations. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am.  104(6).  Link  doi: 10.1785/0120140097

Hobiger M., Fäh D., Michel C., Burjánek J., Maranò S., Pilz M., Imperatori W., Bergamo P.  (2016). Site Characterization in the Framework of the Renewal of the Swiss Strong Motion Network (SSMNet). Proceedings of the 5th IASPEI/IAEE International Symposium: Effects of Surface Geology on Seismic Motion, August 15-17, 2016. 

Hobiger M., Fäh D., Scherrer C., Michel C., Duvernay B., Clinton J., Cauzzi C., Weber F.  (2017). The renewal project of the Swiss Strong Motion Network (SSMNet). Proceedings of the 16th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering (16WCEE 2017), Santiago de Chile, Chile, January 9-13, 2017. 

Ingenieurseismologie

In the frame of the project Database for design-compatible waveforms, we determine the magnitude-distance scenarios most relevant for the five seismic zones (Z1a, Z1b, Z2, Z3a and Z3b) defined in the Swiss building code SIA261 (2020) through disaggregating of the seismic hazard for return periods of 475 and 975 years. We inspect available worldwide databases of waveforms and related metadata, and define standards linked to the quality of three-component recordings (compatibility to GMPE, adequate frequency content, absence of non-physical drift in velocity and displacement) and quality of metadata (reliability of magnitude, distance, site condition information, free-field recording, etc.). Finally, following rules in Eurocode8, we select and scale waveforms for the different soil classes defined in the Swiss building code and each seismic zone.

Project Leader at SED

Prof. Donat Fäh

SED Project Members

Paolo Bergamo, Danciu Laurenciu, Francesco Panzera

Funding Source

Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN)

Duration

Start 1.9.2020 (3 years)

Key Words

Seismic hazard disaggregation; response spectra; building code SIA261; strong motion waveforms

Research Field

Engineering Seismology

Publications

Panzera F., Bergamo P., Chieppa D., Danciu L., Hallo M., Imperatori W., Fäh D. (2021). Design-compatible waveforms for Switzerland: preliminary results. In: 19th Swiss Geoscience Meeting. Geneva, 2021 November 19-20. 

Panzera F., Bergamo P., Danicu L., Fäh D. (2021). Worldwide strong motion metadata inspection to select design-compatible waveforms for Switzerland: preliminary results.. In: 37th European Seismological Commission (ESC) Virtual General Assembly. 2021 September 19-24. 

Bergamo P., Hallo M., Panzera F., Fäh D. (2021). Investigating the site-term of strong motion duration from systematic analysis of the Kik-Net waveform database. In: 37th European Seismological Commission (ESC) Virtual General Assembly. 2021 September 19-24. 

The project Earthquake Risk Model Basel-Stadt (ERM-BS) 2019 to 2023 aims at developing a site specific seismic hazard and risk framework for the Swiss canton of Basel-Stadt. It is a follow-up of the projects Microzonation (2003 - 2009) and Basel Erdbebenvorsorge (2013 - 2016) funded by the canton of Basel-Stadt in its effort to set an earthquake risk mitigation and crisis management strategy for the canton. This project makes a step forward by attempting to develop a 3D integrated geological-seismological model of Basel, which will explicitly account for the complex geological conditions at the surface and at depth. Ground motion amplification models will be developed and validated with earthquake recordings from the permanent and temporary seismic network in the region.
Another aspect of the project involves calculation of risk scenarios by considering building stock, their vulnerability and value, and population of the entire city. A rigorous database of residential, commercial and industrial buildings along with the information related to their structural and non-structural attributes will be compiled. A methodology will be developed to assign different typologies to this large dataset of buildings. Capacity curves and vulnerability parameters will be established for each typology. Finally, detailed risk scenarios based on historical seismicity as well as de-aggregation of the regional seismic hazard will be simulated. One particular focus of the project will be the quantification of uncertainties in the different steps of the process of calculating earthquake risk.
Results obtained from this project are expected to serve the cantonal authorities to adopt proper risk prevention measures (e.g., to identify critical area, to carry out cost-benefit analysis for damage mitigation) as well to plan emergency response strategy (e.g., to rapidly assess damages and identify affected areas) in case of an earthquake occurrence.

Project Leader at SED

Prof. Donat Fäh

SED Project Members

Afifa Imtiaz, Francesco Panzera

Involved Institutions

Kantonales Laboratorium Basel-Stadt, Department of Applied and Environmental Geology (AUG) of University of Basel, Résonance Ingénieurs Conseil, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL)

Funding Source

Kanton Basel-Stadt

Duration

2019-2023

Key Words

3D model, Basel city, ground motion amplification, seismic network, site effects, cantonal building database, seismic vulnerability, seismic risk

Research Field

Engineering Seismology, Seismic Hazard & Risk

Welche Schäden könnten Erdbeben in der Schweiz anrichten? Diese wichtige Frage lässt sich derzeit nur ansatzweise beantworten. Dank des nationalen Erdbebengefährdungsmodells des Schweizerischen Erdbebendienstes (SED) an der ETH Zürich ist zwar bekannt, wo und wie oft mit bestimmten Beben zu rechnen ist und wie starke Erschütterungen sie an einem Standort verursachen. Weitgehend unklar bleibt aber, welche Schäden Erdbeben an Gebäuden anrichten könnten. Der Bundesrat beauftragte nun den SED in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Bundesamt für Umwelt (BAFU) und dem Bundesamt für Bevölkerungsschutz (BABS), diese Lücke zu füllen und bis im Jahr 2022 ein Erdbebenrisikomodell zu erstellen.

Basierend auf der Erdbebengefährdung berücksichtigt das Risikomodell den Einfluss des lokalen Untergrundes sowie die Verletzbarkeit und den Wert von Gebäuden. Es ermöglicht künftig, kantonalen und nationalen Behörden verbesserte Risikoübersichten zu erstellen und darauf basierend ihre Planung zu optimieren. Es besteht zudem die Möglichkeit, detaillierte Szenarien für unterschiedliche Erdbeben sowie Kosten-Nutzen-Analysen mit dem Ziel zu erstellen, Schäden zu mindern. Neben der Prävention dient das Modell im Ereignisfall dazu, rasch abzuschätzen, wo welche Schäden zu erwarten sind. Die Erarbeitung des Modells wird mit Beiträgen des BAFU, des BABS und der ETH finanziert.

Project Leader at SED

Stefan Wiemer

SED Project Members

D. Fäh, F. Haslinger, M. Marti, P. Kästli, L. Danciu, P. Roth, P. Bergamo

Funding Source

BAFU, BABS und ETH

Duration

2017 - 2022

Key Words

Seismische Gefährdung, seismisches Risiko, Standort-amplifikation, Vulnerabilität, finanzielle Verlustmodelle, nationale Databanken, Gebäudetypologie, Verletzbarkeit, Risk Governance, Software-Entwicklung

Research Field

Seismisches Risiko, Ingenieurseismologie

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The third phase of this project is split into 3 subtasks with the main goal to improve regional and local seismic hazard assessment in Switzerland; with particular focus to the sites of potential regions of nuclear repositories. These sub-projects are:

Subproject 1 aims to improve models and develop methods for the prediction of strong ground motion in Switzerland at the surface and at depth. Two main approaches are investigated: ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and stochastic simulation models. Both approaches require calibration to the local seismicity and careful consideration of their extrapolation to large magnitude events which have, as yet, not been instrumentally recorded in Switzerland. In this context, we study the effect of source- and site-related parameters, as stress drop and kappa.

Subproject 2 is focused on earthquake scenario modeling for Switzerland and exploration of the physical limits on ground motion. Our modeling combines realistic rupture along irregular fault surfaces and wave propagation in complex heterogeneous media at high frequency, with focus on underground repositories. Moreover we investigate the plastic and non-linear behavior of soft sediments when subject to high-amplitude Mach waves, conducting CPT measurements to calibrate our numerical models.

Subproject 3 focuses on numerical modeling the induced seismicity during tunnel excavation. Simulations will be performed using both thermo-hydro-mechanical coupled model and statistical model. We will adapt existing models for induced earthquakes to the conditions typically met in deep geological repositories. Available geomechanical faulting models will be used during the validation and calibration stage. Finally, the results will be used as input for Subproject 1 and 2.

Project Leader at SED

Prof. Donat Fäh

 

SED Project Members

Miroslav Hallo, Paolo Bergamo, Antonio Rinaldi

Funding Source

Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate - ENSI

Duration

2010-2014 (1st phase), 2014-2018 (2nd phase), 2018-2022 (3rd phase), 2022-2026 (4th phase)

Key Words

Ground motion prediction equations, ground motion modelling, induced seismicity

Research Field

Swiss Seismicity, Earthquake Hazard & Risk

Reports / Deliverables

D. Fäh, S. Wiemer, D. Roten, B. Edwards, V. Poggi, C. Cauzzi, J. Burjanek, M. Spada, R. Grolimund, M. Gisler, G. Schwarz-Zanetti, P. Kästli (2012). Expertengruppe Starkbeben. ENSI Erfahrungs- und Forschungsbericht 2011, 173-182. Eidgenösisches Nuklearsicherheitsinspektorat ENSI.  PDF 

D. Fäh, S. Wiemer, B. Edwards, V. Poggi, D. Roten, R. Grolimund, M. Spada, J. Wössner (2013). Expertengruppe Starkbeben. ENSI Erfahrungs- und Forschungsbericht 2012, 173-181. Eidgenösisches Nuklearsicherheitsinspektorat ENSI.  PDF 

D. Fäh, S. Wiemer, B. Edwards, V. Poggi, D. Roten, R. Grolimund, M. Spada, B. Schechinger, J. Woessner (2014). Expertengruppe Starkebeben. ENSI Erfahrungs- und Forschungsbericht 2013, 161-170. Eidgenösisches Nuklearsicherheitsinspektorat ENSI.  PDF 

D. Fäh, S. Wiemer, B. Edwards, V. Poggi, D. Roten, R. Grolimund, M. Spada, B. Schechinger , T. Tormann, J. Woessner (2015). Earthquake Strong Motion Research. ENSI Erfahrungs- und Forschungsbericht 2014, 171-180. Eidgenösisches Nuklearsicherheitsinspektorat ENSI.  PDF 

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This working group gathers the researchers with competences in site characterization in order to discuss and improve the work performed in different projects, especially for sites with new permanent seismic stations. The available tools for processing, archiving and disseminating are shared within the group. The group is responsible for setting up and updating the SED database for site characterization. The group meets regularly to discuss new results and to review the work before it is published.
So far, the group performed more than 250 ambient-vibration seismic array and MASW measurements, about 7000 single station horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio measurements to determine the resonance frequencies of the soils, and 10 seismic cone penetration tests (SCPT) to assess the risk of potential liquefaction during earthquakes. Temporary seismic stations are also installed and managed to derive empirical amplification functions at sites of interest.

Project Leader at SED

Prof. Donat Fäh

SED Project Members

Paolo Bergamo, Dario Chieppa, Franziska Glüer, Miroslav Hallo, Mauro Häusler, Afifa Imtiaz, Agostiny Lontsi, Francesco Panzera, Paulina Janusz, Anastasiia Shynkarenko

Funding Source

Actual projects with site characterization work: Strong motion renewal project phase 2; Earthquake risk model for Switzerland; Earthquake risk model for Basel; 4D seismic response and slope failure; Lake Tsunamis: causes, consequences and hazard; and others)

Duration

2010 - present

Key Words

Site characterization, strong motion stations, broadband stations, site response, site effects, site amplification

Research Field

Earthquake Hazard & Risk, Engineering Seismology

Link To Project Website

Project Website

Publications

Bergamo., P., Hammer, C. and Fäh, D. (2021). Correspondence between Site Amplification and Topographical, Geological Parameters: Collation of Data from Swiss and Japanese Stations, and Neural Networks‐Based Prediction of Local Response. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 112 (2).  Link doi: 10.1785/0120210225

Michel, C., Fäh, D., Edwards, B., & Cauzzi, C. (2017). Site amplification at the city scale in Basel (Switzerland) from geophysical site characterization and spectral modelling of recorded earthquakes. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C 98, 27-40. doi: 10.1016/j.pce.2016.07.005

Poggi, V., Burjanek, J., Michel, C., & Fäh, D. (2017). Seismic site-response characterization of high-velocity sites using advanced geophysical techniques: application to the NAGRA-Net. Geophysical Journal International 210(2), 645–659. doi: 10.1093/gji/ggx192

Michel, C., Edwards, B., Poggi, V., Burjanek, J., Roten, D., Cauzzi, C. and Fäh, D. (2014). Assessment of site effects in Alpine regions through systematic site characterization of seismic stations. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 104(6), 2809-2826. doi: 10.1785/0120140097

Burjánek, J., Edwards, B. and Fäh, D. (2014). Empirical evidence of local seismic effects at sites with pronounced topography: a systematic approach. Geophysical Journal International 197(1), 608-619. doi: 10.1093/gji/ggu014

Edwards, B., Michel, C., Poggi, V. and Fäh D. (2013). Determination of Site Amplification from Regional Seismicity: Application to the Swiss National Seismic Networks. Seismological Research Letters 84(4), 611-621. doi: 10.1785/0220120176

Hobiger, M., Bergamo, P., Imperatori, W., Panzera, F., Lontsi, M.S., Perron, V., Michel, C., Burjánek, J., Fäh, D. (2021). Site Characterization of Swiss Strong‐Motion Stations: The Benefit of Advanced Processing Algorithms. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 111 (4), 1713-1739.  Link doi: 10.1785/0120200316

Panzera, F., Alber, J., Imperatori, W., Bergamo, P., Fäh, D.  (2022). Reconstructing a 3D model from geophysical data for local amplification modelling: The study case of the upper Rhone valley, Switzerland.. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 155.  Link doi: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2022.107163

Glueer, F., Häusler, M., Gischig, V., Fäh, D. (2021). Coseismic Stability Assessment of a Damaged Underground Ammunition Storage Chamber Through Ambient Vibration Recordings and Numerical Modelling. Frontiers of Earth Science 9 (1159), 773155.  Link doi: 10.3389/feart.2021.773155

Shynkarenko, A., Lontsi, A.M., Kremer, K., Bergamo, P., Hobiger, M., Hallo, M., Fäh D.  (2021). Investigating the subsurface in a shallow water environment using array and single-station ambient vibration techniques. Geophysical Journal International  227 (3), 1857-1878.  Link doi: 10.1093/gji/ggab314

Lontsi, A.M., Shynkarenko, A., Kremer, K., Hobiger, M., Bergamo, P., Fabbri, S.C., Anselmetti, F.S. and Fäh, D.  (2021). A robust workflow for acquiring and preprocessing ambient vibration data from small aperture ocean bottom seismometer arrays to extract Scholte and Love waves phase-velocity dispersion curves. Pure and Applied Geophysics.  Link doi: 10.1007/s00024-021-02923-8

Häusler, M., Michel, C., Burjánek, J., and Fäh, D.  (2021). Monitoring the Preonzo rock slope instability using resonance mode analysis. J. Geophys. Res. Earth Surf. e2020JF005709.  Link doi: 10.1029/2020JF005709

Hallo, M., Imperatori, W., Panzera, F., Fäh, D.  (2021). Joint multizonal transdimensional Bayesian inversion of surface wave dispersion and ellipticity curves for local near-surface imaging. Geophysical Journal International  226 (1), 627-659. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggab116

Bergamo, P., Hammer, C., and Fäh, D.  (2021). On the Relation between Empirical Amplification and Proxies Measured at Swiss and Japanese Stations: Systematic Regression Analysis and Neural Network Prediction of Amplification. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 111 (1), 101-120.  Link doi: 10.1785/0120200228

Chieppa, D., Hobiger, M.& D. Fäh  (2020). Ambient Vibration Analysis on Large Scale Arrays When Lateral Variations Occur in the Subsurface: A Study Case in Switzerland. Pure and Applied Geophysics 177, 4247–4269.  Link doi: 10.1007/s00024-020-02516-x

Chieppa, D., Hobiger, M. & D. Fäh  (2020). Ambient vibration analysis on seismic arrays to investigate the properties of the upper crust: an example from Herdern in Switzerland. Geophysical Journal International ggaa182. doi: 10.1093/gji/ggaa182

Häusler, M Michel, C. Burjanek, J. & D. Fäh  (2019). Fracture Network Imaging on Rock Slope Instabilities Using Resonance Mode Analysis. Geophysical Research Letters Volume 46, Issue 12, 6497-6506. doi: 10.1029/2019GL083201

Kleinbrod, U., Burjanek, J., Fäh, D (2019). Ambient vibration classification of unstable rock slopes: A systematic approach. Engineering Geology Volume 249, 198-217. 

Maranò, S., Hobiger, M., Bergamo, P. & D. Fäh (2017). Analysis of Rayleigh waves with circular wavefront: a maximum likelihood approach. Geophysical Journal International 210, 3, 1570–1580. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggx225

Burjánek, J., Gischig, V., Moore, J.R. and Fäh, D. (2018). Ambient vibration characterization and monitoring of a rock slope close to collapse. Geophys. J. Int. 212, 297–310.  Link doi: 10.1093/gji/ggx424

Maranò, S., Hobiger, M. & D. Fäh (2017). Retrieval of Rayleigh Wave Ellipticity from Ambient Vibration Recordings. Geophys. J. Int..  Link doi: 10.1093/gji/ggx014

Kleinbrod, U., Burjánek, J., Fäh, D. (2017). On the seismic response of instable rock slopes based on ambient vibration recordings. Earth. Planets and Space 69: 126. doi: 10.1186/s40623-017-0712-5

Kleinbrod, U., Huggentobler, M., Burjánek, J., Aman, F., Fäh, D. (2017). A comparative study on seismic response of two unstable rock slopes within same tectonic setting but different activity level. Geophys. J. Int. 211, 3, 1428-1448.  Link doi: 10.1093/gji/ggx376

Panzera, F., Bergamo, P. & Fäh, D. (2020). Reference soil condition for intensity prediction equations derived from seismological and geophysical data at seismic stations. Journal of Seismology 25 (1).  Link doi: 10.1007/s10950-020-09962-z

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Siedlungen, die nur wenige hundert Meter voneinander entfernt sind, können von ein und demselben Erdbeben in sehr unterschiedlichem Maße betroffen sein. Die Ursache dafür ist die lokale  Standortverstärkung, die von der Art des Bodens (z. B. weiche Sedimente oder steifer Fels), aber auch von seiner Geometrie (eine weite Ebene oder ein Sedimentbecken) bestimmt wird. In dieser Hinsicht sind die Alpentäler ein besonderes geologisches Umfeld, da die Mächtigkeit der Sedimentfüllung von wenigen Metern an den Talrändern bis zu mehreren hundert Metern in der Mitte des Tals ansteigt. Dieser Umstand führt zu besonderen Auswirkungen bei Erdbeben. Außerdem sind Täler unter Risikogesichtspunkten nicht unbedeutend, da sie dicht besiedelt sein können und wichtige Infrastrukturen für den Transport von Gütern und Personen über die Alpen beherbergen.
Die Arbeitsgruppe Erdbeben des SIA hat deshalb im Jahr 2019 die Durchführung einer Grundlagenstudie zum Thema Erdbebenverstärkung in Alpentälern empfohlen, die später in die Massnahmen des Bundes zum Erdbebenrisikomanagement aufgenommen wurde (BAFU, 2020). Das vorliegende Forschungsprojekt basiert auf diesen Empfehlungen; es zielt i) auf eine systematische Untersuchung der Verstärkungswirkungen seismischer Wellen in den Alpentälern der Schweiz und ii) auf die Erarbeitung eines Vorschlags zu deren Berücksichtigung in der nächsten Revision der Baunorm SIA 261.

Project Leader at SED

Donat Fäh

SED Project Members

Paolo Bergamo, Dario Chieppa

Involved Institutions

BAFU (Bundesamt für Umwelt), Arbeitsgruppe Erdbeben des SIA (Schweizerischer Ingenieur- und Architektenverein).

Funding Source

BAFU (Bundesamt für Umwelt)

Duration

2021 - 2024

Key Words

Standorteinfluss bei Erdbeben, Alpine Täler, Gebäudenormen

Research Field

Ingenieurseismologie

Publications

Arbeitsgruppe Erdbeben der Normenkommission SIA 261  (2019). Aktualisierung der Erdbebeneinwirkungen der Norm SIA 261:2014 . Bericht z.H. der Normkommission SIA 261 und der Kommission für technische Normen (KTN) Referenz/Aktenzeichen: S041-0132. In: Bundesamt für Umwelt BAFU Abteilung Gefahrenprävention, 26.03.2019. 

BAFU (2020). Erdbebenrisikomanagement - Massnahmen des Bundes. Bericht an den Bundesrat. Standbericht und Planung für den Zeitraum 2021 bis 2024. Bundesamt für Umwelt, Dezember 2020. 

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Spektrum ist ein Pioneer Fellowship Projekt der ETH Zürich, um neue geophysikalische Methoden, welche in der Gruppe für Ingenieurgeologie am Schweizerischen Erdbebendienst entwickelt wurden, in ein praktisches Produkt zu übersetzen und in die Wirtschaft zu implementieren.

Die meisten Technologien, um instabile Hänge zu charakterisieren und zu überwachen, basieren auf Messungen der Oberflächendeformation, wobei möglicherweise kritische strukturelle Änderungen im Untergrund übersehen werden. Die Aufzeichnung der natürlichen Bodenunruhe ("ambient vibrations") setzt hier an und liefert komplementäre Informationen zur strukturellen Integrität einer Felsstruktur. Die Schwingungseigenschaften geben Aufschluss über die Ausdehnung einer Instabilität und deren Zersetzungsgrad – ähnlich wie es bei der Strukturüberwachung von Brücken und Stäudämmen zum Teil schon gemacht wird. Die Technik kann sowohl zur kontinuierlichen Überwachung wie auch zur schnellen Charakterisierung und Kartierung von Hängen eingesetzt werden. Letzteres bildet eine ideale Grundlage, um kostspieligere Detailuntersuchungen (Bohrungen, GNSS-Stationen, Refraktionsseismik, ...) optimal zu planen und somit die verfügbaren Ressourcen effizient einzusetzen.

Das Pioneer Fellowship wird von der ETH Foundation und dem Innovation & Entrepreneurship Lab der ETH Zürich unterstützt.

Project Leader at SED

Mauro Häusler

Funding Source

ETH Foundation

Duration

2022 - 2023 (18 Monate)

Key Words

Seismische Bodenunruhe, Hangrutschungen, Felsinstabilitäten

Research Field

Ingenieursseismologie, Echtzeitüberwachung

Nummerische Modellierung

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This is the 1st subproject of the “ENSI – SED-Erdbebenforschung zu Schweizer Kernanlagen” project.

This subproject aims to improve source-scaling and attenuation models and to develop methods for the prediction of strong ground motion in Switzerland both at the surface as well as at depth. Two main approaches are investigated: ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and stochastic simulation models. Both approaches require adaptions to the local seismicity and careful consideration of their calibration to Swiss conditions. The Fourier spectral and stochastic models correspond to the current state of research and have some advantages over the empirical attenuation relationships, as it is possible to adjust the model to specific local site conditions. The complete understanding in terms of physical parameterization of such models is crucial in order to decouple different effects, which allow building robust predictive models that scale appropriately to large magnitude events. In this regard, variability in source parameter such as stress drop and corner frequency is crucial. Similarly, variability in site-related attenuation parameter kappa (local intrinsic and scattering attenuation) is also need to be well understood. Developed stochastic and duration models from Japanese data allow the review of the Swiss model for large magnitudes in the different distance ranges and at various rock sites which have, as yet, not been instrumentally recorded in Switzerland. The local weak-to-moderate seismicity is used to calibrate the predictive models. The long-term goal is to develop an improved stochastic simulation model for Switzerland allowing existing uncertainties to be rigorously evaluated and reduced. In future, such models will also allow an assessment of ground motion caused by induced seismicity due to the activation of existing fractures and/or the generation of new fractures. Moreover, we developed, validated, and applied a physics-based stochastic model to characterize high-frequency ground motion at depth in the Fourier domain. The goal of it is to be able to predict future ground motions at deep geological disposals.

Project Leader at SED

Prof. Donat Fäh

SED Project Members

Miroslav Hallo, Paolo Bergamo

Involved Institutions

Department of Earth, Ocean and Ecological Sciences, University of Liverpool

Funding Source

Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate - ENSI

Duration

2014-2026

Key Words

Ground motion prediction equations, Fourier spectral models, stochastic ground motion models, ground motion duration models.

Research Field

Earthquake Hazard & Risk, Engineering Seismology

Publications

Hallo, M., Bergamo, P., and Fäh, D.  (2022). Stochastic model to characterize high-frequency ground motion at depth validated by KiK-net vertical array data. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (under review).. 

Bard, P.-Y., Bora, S. S., Hollender, F., Laurendeau, A., and Traversa, P.  (2020). Are the standard VS-Kappa host-to-harget adjustments the only way to get consistent hard-rock ground motion prediction?. Pure and Applied Geophysics  177, 2049–2068. doi: 10.1007/s00024-019-02173-9

Edwards, B., and Fäh, D.  (2017). Prediction of earthquake ground motion at rock sites in Japan: evaluation of empirical and stochastic approaches for the PEGASOS Refinement Project. Geophysical Journal International  211(2), 766-783. doi: 10.1093/gji/ggx328

Pilz, M., and Fäh, D.  (2017). The contribution of scattering to near-surface attenuation. Journal of Seismology 21 (4), 837–855. doi: 10.1007/s10950-017-9638-4

Edwards, B., Cauzzi, C., Danciu, L., and Fäh, D.  (2016). Region-specific assessment, adjustment, and weighting of ground-motion prediction models: Application to the 2015 Swiss seismic-hazard maps. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America  106 (4), 1840-1857. doi: 10.1785/0120150367

Edwards, B., Ktenidou, O.-J., Cotton, F., Abrahamson, N., Van Houtte, C. and Fäh, D. (2015). Epistemic uncertainty and limitations of the Kappa0 model for near-surface attenuation at hard rock sites. Geophysical Journal International  202 (3), 1627-1645. doi: 10.1093/gji/ggv222

Edwards, B. & Fäh, D.  (2014). Ground motion prediction equations Link  doi: 10.3929/ethz-a-010232326

Edwards, B. and Fäh D. (2013). A Stochastic Ground‐Motion Model for Switzerland. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 103, 78-98. doi: 10.1785/0120110331

Edwards, B., Michel, C., Poggi, V. and Fäh, D. (2013). Determination of Site Amplification from Regional Seismicity: Application to the Swiss National Seismic Networks. Seism. Res. Lett. 84(4), 611-621. doi: 10.1785/0220120176

Poggi, V., Edwards, B. and Fäh, D (2013). Reference S-wave velocity profile and attenuation models for ground-motion prediction equations: application to Japan. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 103(5), 2645-2656. doi: 10.1785/0120120362

Poggi, V., Edwards, B. and Fäh, D. (2012). Characterizing the vertical to horizontal ratio of ground-motion at soft sediment sites. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 102(6), 2741-2756. doi: 10.1785/0120120039

Poggi, V., Edwards, B. and Fäh, D. (2011). Derivation of a Reference Shear-Wave Velocity Model from Empirical Site Amplification. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 101(1), 258-274. doi: 10.1785/0120100060

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This is the 2nd subproject of the „ENSI – SED-Erdbebenforschung zu Schweizer Kernanlagen“ project.

Realistic modeling of earthquake ground motions can be achieved only if the causative fault and the medium where waves propagate are described accurately. To efficiently simulate high-frequency earthquake scenario in Switzerland, we develop a hybrid broadband simulation technique combining state-of-the-art rupture models along irregular fault surfaces and wave propagation in complex heterogeneous media taking into account station-specific scattering parameters. Significant efforts are made to extend the validity of our technique to model ground motion at depth for possible applications at underground repositories. A thorough validation and calibration of sensitive parameters is based on Japanese and Swiss datasets. Along with source and path effects, near-surface site conditions represent an important factor controlling ground motions since soft sediments can significantly amplify the shaking observed during an earthquake. Depending on the level of input ground motion, liquefiable soils have the potential to generate excess water pressure resulting in high-frequency acceleration pulses. Advanced constitutive models of liquefiable soils require the knowledge of so-called dilatancy parameters that describe the potential to generate excess water pressure. These parameters can be determined from field observations by analyzing cone penetration test (CPT) measurements. Accurate modeling of liquefiable soils subject to high-amplitude Mach waves is essential to explore the physical limits of ground motion.

Project Leader at SED

Prof. Donat Fäh

SED Project Members

Walter Imperatori

Involved Institutions

San Diego Supercomputer Center

Funding Source

Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate – ENSI

Duration

2010-2014 (1st phase), 2014-2018 (2nd phase), 2018-2022 (3rd phase)

Key Words

Ground motion, scattering, hybrid broadband, non-linearity, site effects, CPT

Research Field

Engineering Seismology

Publications

Imperatori, W. and Mai, M. (2015). The role of topography and lateral velocity heterogeneities on near-source scattering and ground-motion variability. Geophys. J. Int. 202(3), 2163-2181. doi: 10.1093/gji/ggv281

Gallovic, F., Imperatori, W. and Mai, M. (2015). Effects of three-dimensional crustal structure and smoothing constraint on earthquake slip inversions: Case study of the Mw6.3 2009 L’Aquila earthquake. J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth. 120(1), 428–449. doi: 10.1002/2014JB011650

Roten, D., Olsen, K.B., Day, S.M. and Fäh, D.  (2014). Expected seismic shaking in Los Angeles reduced by San Andreas fault zone plasticity. Geopys. Res. Lett. 41(8), 2769-2777. doi: 10.1002/2014GL059411

Roten, D., Fäh, D. and Bonilla, L.F. (2014). Quantification of cyclic mobility parameters in liquefiable soils from inversion of vertical array records. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 104(6), 3115-3138. doi: 10.1785/0120130329